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Tutorial A Complete Guide To Basics Of Database

Discussion in 'Database Management' started by Swati Mishra, Dec 31, 2015.

  1. Swati Mishra

    Yellow Belt

    Dec 28, 2015
    +105 / -0
    A DBMS (Database Management System) is a combination of hardware and software can be used to set up a database and can update and retrieval of database that has been stored.
    These are facilities which providing by DBMS:

    • Creating file, addition, deletion, modification of data.
    • Retrieving of data (which can be collective or selective).
    • Stored data can be sorted.
    • Mathematical function performs on stored data.


    These are important things in Database Management System:

    DBMS is an important part of computer education. These things give us clear description of concept of different database models. These models are described below.

    • E-R Model
    • Hierarchical Model
    • Network Model
    • Relational Model
    • File organization
    • Evaluation of DBMS
    • Normalization
    • SQL
    • Distributed Database Management System
    • Object-oriented Database Management System
    • Client/Server Database Management System
    • Knowledge Database Management System

    E-R model:

    E-R model stands for Entity Relationship model. E- R model is based upon a perception of real world that consists of collection of basic objects called “ENTITIES “and of relationship among these objects.

    E-R model presents three features to describe data.

    • ENTITIES: Entities specify distinct real world item in program
    • RELATIONSHIP: relationships job is to connect entities and also represent dependencies between entity and Attribute.
    • ATTRIBUTES: Specify the properties of entities and relationships.


    Entity sets relationship:

    These are relationship possible between Entity Set may be.

    • Many-to-Many (M: N): example of (M: N) is employee and project.
    • One-to-Many (1: M): example of (1: M) is manager and employee.
    • Many-to-One (M: 1): example of (M: 1) is employee and manager.
    • One-to-One (1:1): example of (1:1) is department and manager.

    Generalization and Specialization:

    Generalization is a process which can starts from top and ends to bottom. Generalization can be Employee full time or part time employee. Full time employee may be faculty or staff where part time employee is teaching or hour rate employee. Specialization is reverse process of generalization. In this process lower level entities inherit the properties of higher level entities.

    The Hierarchical model:
    Tree structure are using for define this model which can be seen natural in different organization like college has various number of program, college provide different courses and each course have many students. The hierarchical model define the level between them .this is called hierarchical model.

    The network model:
    The network model using different data structure for representing the entities of database and provide relationships between the entities. They are different it maybe record type and set type. Record type is to represent the attributes of entity. And the set type define the one -to-many (1: M) relationship.

    The relational model:
    In the Relational model the data items arranged in the table sequentially. In the relational model these data items shows the structure, relationship and integrity given below:

    • Same kind of all items given any column of table.
    • No duplicity possible in all rows of table means one row can’t another rows for selected key attribute column.
    • Items can be simple number or can be character string
    • Distinct names assign to the columned of a table.
    • The sequence of rows is immaterial.

    File Organization:

    In the database management system File Organization is technique which represent and records are stored in file.

    These are the technique used in the database management system:
    • Sequential file organization:
    In sequential file organization records are stored in the logical sequence of their primary key. We can easily access all the record of table. This technique creates an automatic backup copy.
    • Relative file organization:
    • Indexed sequential file organization:
    The index file organization provides records can access randomly. Index is created form in sequentially which is set of primary keys that are index sequential file organization.
    • Multi-key file organization
    The organization is to organize the records in sequential manner like starts from one point and end with last point. These file organization techniques are simple and easy to use.

    How data accessing works:

    What it shows the relation between the parents, children and so on are used to represent in hierarchy and this data model is called as hierarchy data model. This is how multiple nodes and the root node is designated and thus remaining nodes are called as the trees and sub trees.

    Traversing is this condition can be process through a various choices. This order processing shows that the node before the node sub tree and the processes that sub tree goes (from left to right).

    However, distinct method can be used to implement the sequence in the preorder in an order tree. Here, the pointer plays a vital role in distinguishing between the nodes and the trees and its sub trees.
    There is another method possible that works like a sibling pointer where the child node given the previous hold to the node and the main pointer stand with the front node. Since it traverse from left to right, left node moves to front and so the child node and this is how the traversing process is done.
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  2. cheezcarls

    cheezcarls It's Game Time!
    Yellow Belt

    Dec 15, 2015
    +162 / -0
    This is an excellent guide about the basics of database. All I can say that this is so informative for me @Swati Mishra@Swati Mishra. To be honest, I had no idea on what databases are all about, I was only familiar of that word in cPanel web hosting. You've put all of the effort in order to gather all of this necessary information about databases, SQL, etc. I had a lot to learn about databases, and I realized that we really need to learn how it works. The illustrations you have are awesome and easy to understand. Looks like I need to reread this again. Cheers!
  3. Swati Mishra

    Yellow Belt

    Dec 28, 2015
    +105 / -0
    Hello Cheezcarls,
    It is such an appreciating words from you. Thank you all for liking my post and motivate me to write more such posts. This is what i have done to pour down my thoughts i have studied during my masters degree.
    I'm glad it is being appreciated this way on WMS.
    Thanks again all!
  4. Webmasterserve

    Staff Member Administrator

    Aug 23, 2004
    +77 / -0
    Really well written article and very informative for students and freelancers who deal with databases. Glad to have more techie members with us at WMS. Looking forward to reading more from you @Swati Mishra@Swati Mishra
  5. Manish Mishra

    Yellow Belt

    Dec 22, 2015
    +159 / -0
    Database is everything when you talk about a program, a website having database or a software that requires a working database. you really have elaborated the database working in an efficient manner, I agreed that.
    I am looking forward ton see some real SQL example to see from you that really works in real world.
    Great work, after all!!
  6. sunshine

    Yellow Belt

    Mar 11, 2012
    +128 / -0
    @Swati Mishra I like your post.

    BTW, just want to share some disadvantage of DBMS.
    A database management system (DBMS) is basically a collection of programs that enables users to store, modify, and extract information from a database as per the requirements. DBMS is an intermediate layer between programs and the data.
    On another hand the provision of the functionality that is expected of a good DBMS makes the DBMS an extremely complex piece of software. Database designers, developers, database administrators and end-users must understand this functionality to take full advantage of it. Failure to understand the system can lead to bad design decisions, which can have serious consequences for an organization.
  7. jowjow

    White Belt

    Jan 25, 2016
    +18 / -0
    I completely agree. Database designers should really be aware of this. It is not just simply adding data to the database, there are other factors that need to be consider like is the query being used really is efficient, are the tables properly index, are the fields being in the tables used the correct data type, is the executing time of queries fast, is the network stable to allow complete transfer of data from client to server and many others. This factors can really be a headache.

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