Help Me/Question How Data Independence Is Achieved?


Content Writer
As there are 2 types of data independence i.e physical data independence and logical data independence and any changes made at the lower level would be absorbed by mapping between 2 levels.
However in order to obtain physical data independence that requires the conceptual level not to specify the storage structure and access strategy. The logical data independence is difficult to implement as it requires the flexibility in the dessign of database.For this design of this the programmer need to foresee the future requirement.

Swati Mishra

Content Writer
physical data independence allows to changes in physical storage and the logical data independence change the conceptual schema without affecting the existing
external schema.