ICANN is the organization responsible for coordinating the unique identifiers of the namespaces on the internet. It makes sure that you are able to reach the site's address you entered into the browser. Before you can reach a website, you must have its domain name. That domain name must be unique . With ICANN coordinating these unique identifiers, we can today enjoy the world wide web. Human find a website by entering the name for example abc.com but computers need the Internet Protocol (IP) address to find a website.
ICANN maintains the domain name system called DNS. The DNS makes it possible for human to access the websites on the internet. Computers rely on numbers called IP address to find a website. The advantage of DNS is that there is no need for a domain name to be hosted the first server. The domain can be moved to another server easily because the IP address can be changed easily. This change is reflected in 48 hours because of how advanced the DNS infrastructure is.
ICANN also manage IP addresses and other protocol numbers. The internet is not controlled by a single person or organization. The government also do not have control over the internet. However, ICANN is a non for profit organization set up solely to help managing a few important internet infrastructure in the world.
Many people misunderstood that ICANN register domain names because of the ICANN fee that charged when purchasing a domain name. Actually, the domain registration process is carried by the registrars. ICANN is accredited for coordinating the domain names and IP address. It is the organization that assign IP addresses to 5 different Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). In turn, the RIRs will assign the IP address to the Internet Service Providers. The Internet Service Providers will then reassign them to different individual users as well as networks.
The only extension that it registers is .INT. Another thing that people often misunderstand about ICANN is that it help people obtain access to the internet. The Internet Service Providers is the one that help people have access to the internet.
ICANN does not govern the internet for inappropriate content such as spam and copyright violations. Its job is just to make sure the internet is safe, stable and usable. It ensures that there is a fair competition in the domain name marketplace. They implement different policies to make sure the internet is used fairly. ICANN sets the rules in the generic TLD policy. It facilitates country code and root server system discussions. ICANN manage the DNSSEC, a secured infrastructure of the DNS. It also manage the trust anchor of the root infrastructure. ICANN creates new technologies that can ensures the interoperability on the global internet.
ICANN is not involved in any dispute that has to do with domain ownership. ICANN gives accreditation to more than one thousand registrars that sell domain names to webmasters. It does not accredit all registrars as only those that commit to the policy will be accredited. ICANN does not accredit country code domain extensions for example .cn and .uk.
A new agreement was signed by ICANN with the United States Department of Commerce (DOC) on the 29th September 2006. The agreement allows ICANN to operate as a multistake holder. It manage the TLDs for all kinds of uses including government, academic, technical, international organization, commercial, not commercial and personal use.
ICANN establish the gTLD program to allow any entity in he world to operate its own top level domain. ICANN maintain the numbering facilities on the internet including IPv4 and IPv6. They assign address blocks to regional internet registries as well as managing TLDs namesspaces. Most of the work of ICANN has to do with the development of DNS policy. It regularly carry out maintenance on the addresses allocated by the central internet.
ICANN charges a standard fee of $0.18 when you register for a domain extension for one year. If you register for two years, the fee you have to pay will be $0.36.
ICANN is monitored by a board of 16 members, who work together to shape the policies. You can contribute your feedback by joining the Public Comment forums at the ICANN website. Every year, ICANN will organize a few public meetings online to get some input from the members. You can also participate by following them on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.