What Is Perl 6

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Why Perl 6 ?

Innumerable programmers, hackers, system administrators, hobbyists, and dabblers write Perl 5 quite successfully. The language doesn't have the marketing budget of large consulting companies, hardware manufacturers, or tool vendors pushing it, yet people still use it to get their jobs done.
Why argue with that success? Why redesign a language that's working for so many people and in so many domains? Sure, Perl 5 has some warts, but it does a lot of things very well.

What Is Perl 6 ?

Perl 6 will likely also use its test suite as its primary specification, but as Larry Wall puts it, "We're just trying to start with the right tests this time."

Even if the Perl 5 code base did follow a specification, its design is inelegant in many places. It's also very difficult to expand. Many good ideas that would make code easier to write and maintain are too impractical to support. It's a good prototype, but it's not code that you would want to keep if you had the option to do something different.

From the language level, there are a few inconsistencies, as well. For example, why should sigils change depending on how you access internal data? (The canonical answer is "To specify context of the access," but there are other ways to mark the same.) When is a block a block, and when is it a hash reference? Why does SUPER method redispatch not respect the currently dispatched class of the invocant, but only the compiled class? How can you tell the indirect object notation's method name barewords from bareword class or function names?

It can be difficult to decide whether the problem with a certain feature is in the design or the implementation. Consider the desire to replace a built-in data structure with a user-defined object. Perl 5 requires you to use tie and overload to do so. To make this work, the internals check special flags on every data structure in every opcode to see if the current item has any magical behavior. This is ugly, slow, inflexible, and difficult to understand.

The Perl 6 solution is to allow multi-method dispatch, which not only removes conceptual complexity (at least, MMD is easier to explain than tie) but also provides the possibility of a cleaner implementation.

Perl's flexibility sometimes makes life difficult. In particular, there being multiple more-or-less equivalent ways to create objects gives people plenty of opportunities to do clever things they need to do, but it also means that people tend to choose the easiest (or sometimes cleverest) way to do something, not necessarily the best way to do something. It's not Perlish to allow only one way to perform a task, but there's no reason not to provide one really good and easy way to do something while providing the proper hooks and safety outlets to customize the solution cleanly.

Also, there are plenty of language optimizations that turned out to be wrong in the long term. Many of them were conventions--from pre-existing awk, shell, Unix, and regular expression cultures--that gave early Perl a familiarity and aided its initial growth. Yet now that Perl stands on its own, they can seem counter-productive.

Redesigning Perl means asking a lot of questions. Why is the method call operator two characters (one shifted), not a single dot? Why are strictures disabled by default in programs, not one-liners? Why does dereferencing a reference take so many characters? (Perl 5 overloaded curly braces in six different ways. If you can list four, you're doing well.) Why is evaluating a non-scalar container in scalar context so much less useful than it could be?

Once you accept that backwards compatibility is standing in the way of progress and resolve to change things for the better, you have a lot of opportunities to fix design and implementation decisions that turn out to have been bad--or at least, not completely correct.

Advantages of Perl 6

In exchange for breaking backwards compatibility, at least at the language level, Perl 6 offers plenty of high-powered language concepts that Perl 5 didn't support, including:

* Multimethods
* Coroutines
* Continuations
* Useful threading
* Junctions
* Roles
* Hyperoperators
* Macros
* An overridable and reusable grammar
* Garbage collection
* Improved foreign function interface
* Module aliasing and versioning
* Improved introspection
* Extensible and overridable primitives
Rules and Grammars

One of Perl 5's most useful features is integrated regular expression support--except they're not all that regular anymore. Nearly every problem Perl 5 has in the whole (inconsistency, wrong shortcuts, difficult reusability, inflexible and impenetrable internals) shows up in the syntax and implementation of regular expressions.

Perl 6 simplifies regular expressions while adding more power, producing rules. You can reuse and combine rules to produce a grammar. If you apply a grammar to text (or, perhaps, any type of input including a recursive data structure), you receive a match tree.

That sounds quite a bit like what a parser and lexer do--so there's little surprise that Perl 6 has its own locally overridable grammar that allows you to make your own syntax changes and redefine the language when you really need to. Perl 5 supported a similar feature (source filters), but it was fragile, hard to use, and even harder to re-use in serious programs.

By making a clean break from regular expressions, the designers had the opportunity to re-examine the regex syntax. The new syntax is more consistent, so it's easier to type and to remember the syntaxes of common operations. There's also more consistency, so that similar features look similar.

Perl 6 has a Perl 5 compatibility layer, if you prefer quick and dirty and familiar--but give the new syntax a try, especially for projects where quick and dirty regular expressions were intractable (more than usual, anyway).
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